Froth flotation in Brazil

Arthur Pinto Chaves

Froth flotation in Brazil is the fourth volume of Theory and practice of ore treatment and approaches, among other subjects, flotation machines, water treatment, column flotation and the application of the process in the separation of several ores, including iron, leader Brazil’s exportation product.

Extremely important for the mineral industry, flotation is growing on relevance, extending its applications to processed ores.

In this new edition, revised and enhanced, several illustrations and practical examples of flotation application are presented.

Organized by Arthur Pinto Chaves, Froth flotation in Brazil is a valuable reference for scholars, students and mining and metallurgic professionals.

Original title
A flotação no Brasil
Year of publication

About the authors

Arthur Pinto Chaves

Arthur Pinto Chaves is graduated in Metallurgic Engineering, has a Masters in Mineral Technology and a PhD all by Universidade de São Paulo, and a post-doctorate from Southern Illinois University. Teaches in the Department of Mine and Petroleum Engineering in Universidade de São Paulo and has worked since 1990 in the main mining and engineering in Brazil. Has practical experience in the field of Mining Engineering, with emphasis in ore treatment, mineral technology, ore beneficiation and flotation.

Author's CV.

1. Froth flotation as unit operation in ore treatment

1.1 Basic aspects of froth flotation

1.2 Interface properties principles

1.3 Reagents and mechanisms of action

1.4 Froth flotation machines

1.5 Froth flotation use in Brazil



2. Froth flotation machines

2.1 Mechanic cells

2.2 Tank-cells

2.3 Froth flotation cells hydrodynamics

2.4 Pneumatic cells

2.5 Others equipments

2.6 Equipment available in Brazil



3. Column froth flotation

3.1 Brief history

3.2 The processes of column froth flotation

3.3 Technological evolution of column froth flotation

3.4 The current status of art

3.5 The case of Bunge in Araxá

3.6 Bubble generation system



4. Paulo Abib: the great froth flotation master in Brazil

4.1 A rough start

4.2 The Serrana challenge

4.3 Tracking his own path

4.4 The lost

Consulted bibliography


5. Froth flotation of phosphate minerals

5.1 Flotability of apatites

5.2 Adsorption of collectors in phosphate minerals

5.3 The use of fatty acids and its salts

5.4 Length and degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon chain

5.5 Oxidation of double bonds

5.6 “Limiting area”

5.7 Solubility

5.8 Sulfosuccinates and sulfosuccinamate

5.9 Modifying agents

5.10 System chemistry

5.11 pH control

5.12 Slimes coating

5.13 Flotability of gangue

5.14 Critical analysis of concentration phosphate minerals process



6. Gold froth flotation

6.1 Gold ore classification

6.2 Froth flotation in gold ore processing

6.3 Gold froth flotation

6.4 Froth flotation practice of auriferous ore

6.5 A few challenges in auriferous ore froth flotation



7. Copper froth flotation in Mineração Caraíba

7.1 General characteristics of Mineração Caraíba

7.2Description of the productive process



8. Copper froth flotation in Sossego and Salobo

8.1 General characteristics of Sossego plant

8.2 Copper froth flotation in Sossego

8.3 General characteristics of Salobo plant



9. Lead and zinc froth flotation in Votorantim Metais

9.1 Vazante unit – zinc silicate ore

9.2 Morro Agudo unit – lead and zinc sulfide ore



10. Nickel froth flotation in Votorantim Metais

10.1 Consulted bibliography


11. Potassium chloride froth flotation (sylvite)

11.1 Physicochemical and technological particularities of potassium salt froth flotation

11.2 Fundaments of sylvite (KCl) versus halite (NaCl) separation selectivity by froth flotation

11.3 The process of sylvite concentration in the Taquari-Vassouras concentration plant



12. Silicates froth flotation

12.1 Mineral from the silicates class

12.2 Silicates structure and superficial charge

12.3 Chemistry of the reagents in solution

12.4 Reagents adsorption

12.5 Application example: spodumene froth flotation in systems with feldspar and quartz



13. Iron ore froth flotation

13.1 Desliming

13.2 Cationic collectors

13.3 Anionic collectors

13.4 Depressants

13.5 Frothing agents

13.6 Nonionic surfactants

13.7 Conclusions



14. Feldspars froth flotation

14.1 The feldspars

14.2 Characteristics of feldspars froth flotation

14.3 Feldspars beneficiation

14.4 Concerns about fluorated effluents elimination



15. Froth flotation of magnesite and talc ores

15.1 Magnesite

15.2 Talc

15.3 Conclusions



16. Bauxite froth flotation

16.1 Process development history

16.2 Literature revision

16.3 Conclusion



17. Coal froth flotation

17.1 Brief history of the coal flotation process in Brazil

17.2 Acting mechanisms in coal flotation

17.3 Employed equipment in coal flotation

17.4 Employed reagents in flotation

17.5 Challenges and operational problems in coal flotation

17.6 Final considerations



18. The High Intensity Conditioning (HIC) process in ore froth flotation

18.1 The problems in fine ore recovering

18.2 High Intensity Conditioning (HIC)

18.3 HIC – flotation process: studies of lab scale research

18.4 Case study: Bunge Araxá’s (current Vale) phosphate ores

18.5 Final considerations and conclusion



19. Water treatment in mining

19.1 Hydrology and Hydrogeology

19.2 Treatment of ore and mineral processing water

19.3 Final considerations and conclusions



20. Research and development in flotation

20.1 Research stages and development in the flotation process

20.2 Where are flotation researches developed?

20.3 Important characteristics for flotation research development

20.4 Tendencies for the future



21. Clariant in mining

21.1 Collectors

21.2 Frothing agents


22. Who is who in froth flotation in Brazil?