Quantification of Forest Resources: trees, groves and forests

João Luís Ferreira Batista , Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto , Demóstenes Ferreira da Silva Filho

A solid ecological or economical monitoring of forest resources must rely on quantitative indicators.

This book is about such quantification, explaining the theory behind it and including exercises at the end of each chapter to apply and retain the main concepts in a didactic manner.

With a modern and innovative approach, combining concepts, techniques and methods specifically for tree, grove and forest quantification  and monitoring, the book presents the main concepts in the field, such as destructive and non-destructive methods, metrology, forest mensuration, forest inventory, attribute monitoring and prediction, among other topics.

Four appendices with mathematical and statistical concept reviews complement the book, as an indispensable material for the quantification of forest resources.

Quantification of forest resources presents a practical approach to the main concepts and methods of measurement, prediction and appraisal for Agronomy, Forestry, Environmental Resources Management and Ecology students, also serving as an important reference for professionals.

Original title
Quantificação de recursos florestais
Year of publication

About the authors

João Luís Ferreira Batista

João Luís Ferreira Batista graduated in Forestry at University of São Paulo and has a PhD from University of Washington.

Author's CV (in portuguese).

Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto

Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto graduated in Agricultural Engineering at University of São Paulo and has a PhD from North Carolina State University.

Author's CV.

Demóstenes Ferreira da Silva Filho

Demóstenes Ferreira da Silva Filho graduated in Agronomy at São Paulo State University, where he also held his Master’s and PhD degrees.

Author's CV.

1 Trees

1.1 Definition of tree

1.2 Shape of trees

1.3 Trees’ growth

1.4 Arborimetrics: tree measurement


2 Non-destructive arborimetrics

2.1 Number of stems and qualitative features

2.2 Stems diameter

2.3 Height of the tree

2.4 Tree crown


3 Destructive arborimetrics

3.1 Tree wood content

3.2 Conventional volume and content of products

3.3 Pilled volume

3.4 Stem form

3.5 Biomes


4 Fundaments of metrology

4.1 Concept of measurement

4.2 Types of measurement scales

4.3 Quantity and measurement units

4.4 International System of Units

4.5 Measurement uncertainty

4.6 Significant figures

4.7 Measurement uncertainty propagation


5 Arborimetrical monitoring

5.1 Development stages

5.2 Growth and time

5.3 Monitoring by stem analysis

5.4 Monitoring by successive re-measurements

5.5 Growth curve and increments

5.6 Trees monitoring


6 Predictive arborimetrics

6.1 Height prediction

6.2 Amount prediction

6.3 Grove assortment prediction

6.4 Biomass prediction

6.5 Construction of arborimetrical models


7 Groves

7.1 Structure of native forests

7.2 Structure of planted forests

7.3 Groves and sample unit

7.4 Arbustimetrics: grove measurement


8 Arbustimetrical measures

8.1 Qualitative features

8.2 Stand structure

8.3 Average tree size

8.4 Stand density

8.5 Site quality

8.6 Species diversity

8.7 Yield and stand table

8.8 Conclusion


9 Arbustimetrical methods

9.1 The grove as a surface

9.2 The grove by the Prodan method

9.3 The grove by the Bitterlich method

9.4 Others arbustimetrical methods


10 Arbustimetrical monitoring

10.1 Development stages

10.2 Growth components

10.3 Monitoring by successive arbustimetrical

10.4 Increment curves

10.5 Mortality and recruitment


11 Predictive arbustimetrics

11.1 Prediction of the stand features

11.2 Site index curves

11.3 Site index equations

11.4 Growth and yield models


12 Forests

12.1 Concept of forest

12.2 Vegetation formation

12.3 Silvimetrics: forest measurement


13 Fundaments of silvimetrics

13.1 Experiments and surveys

13.2 Fundaments of sampling theory


14 Basic silvimetrical methods

14.1 Simple random sampling

14.2 Systematic sampling

14.3 Stratified sampling


15 Silvimetrics with auxiliary measurements

15.1 Ratio estimator

15.2 Regression estimator

15.3 Double sampling

15.4 Cluster sampling

15.5 Multistage sampling


16 Silvimetrical monitoring

16.1 Temporal alterations and monitoring

16.2 Continuous forest inventory

16.3 Impact survey



A Geometrical solids

A.1 Solids of revolution

A.2 Solids from the cylinder family

A.3 Volume of truncate geometrical solids


B Measurement, estimation and prediction

B.1 Estimation: analogy with measurement

B.2 Uncertainties of the estimation procedure

B.3 Dealing with estimation uncertainties

B.4 Prediction

B.5 Uncertainties associated with prediction

B.6 Predictions and measures aggregation

B.7 Interpolation and extrapolation

B.8 Conclusion


C Linear regression

C.1 Simple linear regression

C.2 Multiple linear regression

C.3 Model selection criteria


D. Statistical tables

D.1 Table of random numbers

D.2 Table of Student’s t statistic


By presenting Quantification of forest resources I point out the authors’ experience, acquired after many years acting as teachers, researchers and professionals committed to practical aspects. This experience gave them knowledge and credibility to prepare this significant work, important to the field of Forest Measuring in general.

With over 300 pages this book presents a different approach from those already existent. First, it was divided in three parts, Trees, Groves and Forests, with concepts of each of these themes. The chapters present specific discussions about each part. In the end are presented appendixes about general themes such as geometrical solids, concepts about measurement, estimation, prediction and linear regression.

Different from other publications in the field there are unusual but appropriate classification, for example, in the part entitled Trees the authors used the term arborimetrics, in the part Groves, the term arbostimetric, and for the part Forests the authors used the already well-known in the forest field term silvimetrics. Another aspect of Quantification of forest resources is the different approach on the subjects compared to others Forest Measurement books. Besides, this work contains topics not approached in traditional publications in this field of knowledge. The way of approaching the subjects is, therefore, a differential of this compendium.

This book is directed to undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and to those who militate daily with measuring trees, forests and its products, from simple current content evaluations until processes and techniques of estimation and prediction with trees just as much as population and forests. In this context involves modelling and sampling techniques often used and fundamental to forest engineers and other professionals dealing with forest management aiming forest sustainability and the forest enterprise as a whole.

Certainly this important writing is indispensable to professors and students in the fields of Dendrometry, Growth and Production, Forest Inventory, Forests Dynamics and Monitoring and Forest Stand, etc. Certainly I will have it in my library and recommend it to all my tutored and regular students and professionals.

Finally, I would like to express the honour to be entrusted of presenting this book, and congratulate the authors João Luís F. Batista, Hilton Thadeu Z. do Couto e Demóstenes F. da Silva Filho, professor in the Superior School of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz from University of São Paulo, for the excellent work which certainly expended a lot of labor, dedication, perseverance and abnegation, without which such a big task wouldn’t be completed.

Prof. Dr. Sebastião do Amaral Machado
Forest Engineering – UFPR