Water Desalination

Ana Paula Pereira da Silveira , Ariovaldo Nuvolari , Francisco Tadeu Degasperi , Wladimir Firsoff

Water Desalination is a reference work: the first Brazilian book totally devoted to this subject. It offers alternatives for coping with water crisis situations and avoiding shortages.


The authors detail the different desalination processes: the various forms of distillation (MED, MSF, VC), the processes of electrodialysis and reserve electrodialysis, reserve osmosis and nanofiltration. The raw water pretreatment and post-treatment of the produced water also receive careful attention.


A special chapter is devoted to the use of vacuum in thermal distillation, with a description of all phases of laboratory research. There are also detailed reports on the desalination process of sea water, brackish water, wastewater and irrigation water using different techniques – which allows the authors to draw an analytical comparison about these different plants, evaluating their advantages and their challenges.

Original title
Dessalinização de águas
Year of publication

About the authors

Ana Paula Pereira da Silveira

Ana Paula Pereira da Silveira was born in 1986 in the city of São Paulo (SP). She graduated in Biology from Santo André Foundation (2007) and holds a technician degree in Environmental Sanitation from São Paulo State Faculty of Technology (FATEC-SP) (2012) and a Master’s degree in Environmental Technologies from "Paula Souza" State Center of Technological Education (CEETEPS) (2012).

Ariovaldo Nuvolari

Ariovaldo Nuvolari was born in 1949 in the city of Jaú (SP). He graduated in Civil Engineering Technology – Hydraulic Works modality from São Paulo State Faculty of Technology (FATEC-SP) (1976) and holds a Master’s (1996) and a PhD (2002) in the area of Water Resources and Sanitation from the School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design (FEC) of University of Campinas (UNICAMP).

Francisco Tadeu Degasperi

Francisco Tadeu Degasperi was born in 1956 in the city of São Paulo (SP). He holds a bachelor’s degree in Physics from the Institute of Physics of University of São Paulo (USP) and a Master’s and PhD the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of (FEEC) of University of Campinas (UNICAMP).

Wladimir Firsoff

Wladimir Firsoff was born in 1952 in the city of São Paulo (SP). He graduated in Civil Engineering Technology – Hydraulic Works modality from São Paulo State Faculty of Technology (FATEC-SP) (1978). Since 1980 he is a professor in the area of Environmental Sanitation at Fatec.

The water

The challenges of public water supply

The concept of sustainable development

Water availability

General aspects of the desalination processes


Desalination processes

Schematic arrangements of desalination processes

Fundamentals of distillation processes

Main characteristics of distillation processes

Multiple-effect distillation process (MED)

Multi-stage flash distillation process (MSF)

Vapor-compression desalination process (VC)

Distillation processes compared to other processes

Electrodialysis and reverse electrodialysis processes (ED/RED)

Desalination by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

Other desalination processes


Water chemistry

Basic water chemistry

Cycle of water and constituents

Main terms used in Chemistry

Chemical compounds and formulas

Water constituents

Measurements on water samples

Types of water and treatment

Chemical water analysis


Pretreatment of raw water

Distillation processes

Pretreatment in processes with the use of membranes


Post-treatment of produced water


Stabilization by mixing with other waters

Removal of dissolved gases

Disinfection of water produced


Environmental considerations

Environmental impacts and final destination of saline concentrate

Impacts on the collection of raw water: collision and entrainment

Environmental impact studies in Brazil


Sanitary microbiology in desalination

Sources and survival of pathogenic organisms

Biological indicators of water quality

Microbiology in desalination processes


Use of vacuum in thermal distillation


Scope and objectives of vacuum technology

Considerations for modeling and calculating vacuum systems

Vacuum needs in industry and science

Vacuum applications in industry and science

Vacuum circuits used in distillation

Pumps, vacuum meters and auxiliary components

Scope and objectives of thermodynamics and heat transfer

Definitions and basic concepts of thermodynamics and heat transfer

Research: thermal distillation using vacuum

Final considerations

Specific bibliography


Some case reports

Desalination of brackish water using RO

Desalination of sea water using RO

Recovery of wastewater using RO

Desalination of sea water by the MSF distillation process

Desalination of irrigation water using RO

Desalination of sea water using RO

Final considerations regarding desalination plants


Bibliographical references

About the authors